The author presented the risks of digital space for the effective development and education of children on the example of the transformation of the saying "Do your own research". The question of forming critical thinking, developing reflection, one’s system of values, relations with the world, without which the results of the primary message of DYOR are counterproductive, is relevant.
The purpose of this work is to draw attention to the promise of psychological research into children's philosophizing as a method of self-actualization and objectification of a developing personality, which results in successful self-realization and communication of the child both in real life and digital space. For over a quarter of a century, the Russian practice of philosophizing with children has provided interesting material for scientific analysis for educators, philosophers, and psychologists. Positive personal and behavioral changes have been proved in children engaged in practical philosophizing within the framework of a philosophical club, additional developmental programs and vacation leisure activities using the methodology of playful philosophizing. The report is illustrated with an article from the children's philosophical newspaper "Owl". It presents the effectiveness of open and creative discussion of important philosophical topics by children for constructive interaction and the informational space.
Childhood, digital space, children's philosophizing, critical thinking, philosophical reflection
Relevance. This report presents "Play with Fori" an innovative educational program that develops emotional literacy in preschool children and their socio-emotional competence. "Play with Fori" has a clearly defined educational structure and a minimum of activities and competencies that are expected to be acquired by preschool children. The program lasts 10 weeks, with one module presented each week. The first module begin with the story and situation in which the main character Fori the hedgehog finds himself, the emotion he feels and the related facial expression, as well as his attempts to deal with the situation. Half of the content of the educational program is digitalized and as a result was developed a mobile application that can be used in family setting or in individual work.
Purpose of the study. The study has several objectives - to examine the level of emotional literacy in four different age groups, to examine the effectiveness of the educational program "Play with Fori", by comparing the results before and after the end of the educational program.
Research methods and sample. Pre- and post-assessment of the emotional vocabulary of children using a special picture test. SPSS is used for statistical analysis of data. Teachers record changes in children's behaviour after each educational module in the teacher's diary. The sample includes 154 children, from 3 to 7 years old, from four preschool groups.
Main results. "Play with Fori" not only improves children's vocabulary in terms of emotions, but also helps children manage various difficult emotional states and behaviours.
Conclusion. Teachers report improvement in language skills in relation to emotions, which corresponds to the data from the pilot study, as well as a reduced rate of aggressive behaviour and improved social skills of children.
socio-emotional competence, preschool, educational program
According to numerous studies, intellectually gifted schoolchildren achieve greater academic success and satisfaction of learning in the homogeneously grouping on abilities classes than in heterogeneously grouped classes. Such differences are especially noticeable when using special programs for high ability students, such as acceleration or enrichment, subject-specific or interdisciplinary of education. In the recent decades digital devices and software provide opportunities for teachers to create a cognitively challenging environment for gifted students both in mainstream schools, in advanced classes and groups, and also individually. The data of qualitative researches demonstrate effectiveness of online education for intellectual gifted school children because it can permit to provide appropriate and individualized difficulties and challenges to each student. However, many questions regarding individualization, challenges, and student readiness for online learning, including Internet courses, still remain unresolved and need to be explored to help understand how gifted students and their teachers perceive their experience. The aim of our study is to analyze some of the issues of gifted children education in the digital age through the literature review and qualitative research. Evidence of many studies demonstrates that the variety of possibilities for intellectually gifted students to improve own knowledge and skills using the internet is much more than in pre-internet times. Virtual classroom, on-line discussion-clubs and other forms of media-associations benefit to educators in creating challenging environment for their high ability students. At the same time the teacher's role demands to take into account individuality of each student, specific needs and talents in cognitive sphere, emotional and social peculiarities, and variety of trajectories of giftedness development.
The researching results substantiate for appropriate professional, including special psychological, training for gifted education teachers and other school staff. The important directions and approaches to improving the qualifications of teachers are offered.
The family ensures the stability of society, evolves along with it, and also acts as a social space in which a person's personal development takes place. State support measures are generally aimed at its socio-economic well-being. At the same time, the psychological effect of these support measures remains uncertain. The analysis of historical experience of state policy intervention in family relations can serve as a basis for modeling the future. In the 30-50 years of the last century, a boarding school system was introduced for children of northern peoples who lead a nomadic lifestyle. Researchers note that the violation of child-parent relationships has led to a number of significant psychological problems, including in family relationships and in violation of ethnic identity. The purpose of the research is to study the representation of family identity in the Self-concept of the indigenous peoples of Yakutia. Research method «Who am I?». The article compares the sakha and indigenous peoples of the north: evens, evenks, yukagirs, chukoch and dolgan. The sample consists of 586 people aged 12 to 79. It is revealed that the Self-concept of modern residents of Yakutia reflects the features of the traditional mentality of indigenous peoples. However, the family identity of the indigenous peoples of the north is less represented than that of the sakha. Thus, the results of our research confirm the impact of state measures on the self-consciousness of the individual.
State support, family, self-concept, family identity, parent-child relationship, indigenous peoples of the north
The development of artificial intelligence technologies, understood as a set of technological solutions that allow simulating human cognitive functions (including self-learning and searching for solutions without a predetermined algorithm), and obtaining results that are at least comparable to the results of human intellectual activity at present goes pretty fast. Some AI-based technologies are included in our daily lives today.
The lack of a philosophical assessment of the prospects for using AI technologies in terms of values entails an increase of social, ethical, legal and psychological risks of its use.
Here are some of the most discussed risks of using AI technology by children or in working with children. In the field of education these are the risks of the reproduction of inequality (in cases of using adaptive learning systems); risks of unplanned discrimination (in the case of advisory programs); the risks of decreasing motivation and the formation of gaming addictions (in the case of gaming intellectual learning technologies) and others. The use of AI technologies in child care can lead to a threat to human dignity, a problem of distribution of responsibility.
Lehankova V. Belarusian State Pedagogical University named after Maxim Tank (Belarus) Chykiliova D. State educational institution “Nursery-kindergarten 5 of Zhlobin” (Belarus) Haliuk H. Belarusian State Pedagogical University named after Maxim Tank (Belarus)
The social situation of the development of the child (L.S.Vygotsky) of preschool age includes a set of conditions that ensure the individualization of child development and entry into the world of human culture. In modern conditions, it is determined by the nature of interaction between the main subjects of the educational process of preschool education (N.E.Veraksa, S.A.Kozlova) in the context of expanding the space of the developing educational environment of the preschool education institution, including through the use of information and communication technologies (E.O.Smirnova), to improve the quality of information and explanatory work when interacting with parents of pupils.
The empirical study included: identifying the difficulties of organizing the educational process in a pandemic (questionnaire of teachers of preschool education institutions, n = 261), evaluation of the organization's effectiveness educational process and remote forms of interaction of pedagogical workers of the preschool education institution with parents of pupils (questionnaire of legal representatives of pupils, n = 321).
Legal representatives of pupils are mainly satisfied (78.8% - completely, 19.3% - partially) with the organization of the educational process in preschool education institutions in a pandemic. Parents and teachers identify common difficulties in organizing the educational process related to the organization of holidays and entertainment. The relevance of the development and use of remote online content to improve the content and forms of interaction between teachers and parents is confirmed. The preferred forms of information and communication technologies on the part of parents are: the use of social networks, parental meetings online, online consultations and educational portals for parents.
The optimization of the forms and content of interaction with parents of pupils can ensure the improvement of the quality of the educational environment as a means of creating a social situation for the development of children of preschool age.
social situation of personal development, preschool education, assessment, interaction of kindergarten and parents
Current social situation has caused qualitative changes in the play activity of preschoolers: contemporary children spend less time on free play, while developed forms of role play are found rather rarely. These trends are associated with the global processes of informatization and digitalization. Many scholars argue that a new cultural and historical type of childhood - "digital childhood" - has emerged recently.
The research focuses on identifying specific traits of play activity in children with high level of screen time. Research methods include "Method of diagnostics of role-playing games" by E.O. Smirnova, I.A. Ryabkova and "Diagnostics of the development of playing skills" by R.R. Kalinina, as well as a questionnaire, elaborated by the authors to evaluate different aspects of children’s interaction with digital content. The empirical study was conducted from December 2019 to January 2021. 13 children between 4 and 6 years of age participated in the longitudinal study. The analysis of the collected data showed that the level of computer activity is associated with such characteristics of play activity assubject substitution; interaction, organizing the game; plot elaboration; role behavior; play actions; the use of attributes and implementation of rules. The more time the child spends interacting with gadgets, the lower are the indicated characteristics of play.
The results of the study are interesting for psychologists, educators, and parents, and may be used particularly in elaborating recommendations concerning preschoolers’ interaction with digital media.
play, play activity, preschool age, the level of computer activity, screen time, gadgets
This study aims to investigate the development of superior psychological functions during childhood, through the analysis of reports given by the subjects involved in this research (children), and also through the observation of moments in which role-play is established in the school routine in institutions of Children’s Education. The overall aim of this research is to analyze children’s reports about play in their routine and how this act takes place in institutions of Children’s Education. The research is based on historical-cultural psychology which encompasses a broad study on the appropriation of superior psychological functions since the natural processes that integrate them in children’s development. These psychological functions are separated, only for study purposes, into elementary psychological functions, directly related to biological development, and superior psychological functions, which only develop due to interaction with one’s culture. Elementary psychological functions are instinctive, related to biological functions such as involuntary attention and instinctive memory; however, superior psychological functions are acquired functions which involve the process of domain of external environments of cultural and thought development such as oral language, language through drawing, written language and calculations. Qualitative research is the methodology used, having as resources individualized interviews, chat groups with the children, photographs taken by the children and active observation. With this study, we intend to broaden the theoretical discussion on the moment when role-play takes place while considering the child’s opinion about the play.
Historical-Cultural Psychology; Role-play; Superior Psychological Functions.
Introduction. The presentation includes the results of an experimental study aimed at assessing the contribution the categorial abilities to the characteristics of search query formulations used by school students for educational online search. The categorial abilities are considered as the basic prerequisites for the effectiveness of educational activity. The ways of formulating search queries, on the one hand, are determined by the characteristics of the student’s cognitive activity, and, on the other hand, by the complexity of the search task. However, today it is unclear how these factors interact and what contribution they make together to the effectiveness of educational online search, which is considered as assimilation of the information.
Research question: What contribution do categorial abilities make to the formulation of such search queries that provide the effectiveness of educational online search in the situation of performing simple and complex search tasks?
Materials and methods. The experimental study involved 287 school students of 5th-9th grades. The students performed search tasks of varying complexity, similar to typical educational tasks for finding additional information. The search actions were recorded with the use of a video screen capture program. Search query formulation strategies were identified by the analysis of video recordings. The categorial abilities were assessed with the "Categorization" technique.
Results and discussion. We found two strategies for the formulation of search queries: direct formulations and clarifying formulations. Clarifying formulations are more likely to lead to assimilation of information, in comparison with direct formulations. The categorial abilities make a more significant contribution to the productivity of performing complex tasks, in comparison with simple ones.
Conclusions. The results of the study should be used for teaching school students the skills of effective online search.
Funding. The research is supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project No. 19-29-14005.
In the conditions of COVID-19, there was an intensification of the use of information technologies by teachers. These changes have affected the duration, labor, automation, communication and the object of labor. The purpose of the study is to change the professional work of teachers Research methods - conversation, self-developed questionnaires Sampling - teachers using MOODLE and Zoom systems. The main results - there was a change in the perception of the object of labor when using ZOOM and MOODLE, the duration and satisfaction with work due to the identified errors of the systems in the process of application, a change in the role of the teacher - at the same time, he can be not only a teacher, but also an operator of an automated information system, the use of which requires preparation for successful work. Conclusion During the study it was revealed: 1. the teacher plays the role of an automated system operator, which requires additional training and optimization of the system interface, where interface and user errors were identified and classified. The identified errors lead to disruption of communications within the system and the duration of work, which causes dissatisfaction with work. The adaptation of the system will reduce the time for application and partially automate the work of the teacher for the adaptation of work and rest. 2. To increase the satisfaction with the use of video systems, it is required to establish mandatory rules for conducting remote classes in video conferences by turning on cameras and microphones, because the system of the object of labor is changing - work is done with a real person or a simulacrum, i.e. visually the student may be in class, but physically he does not participate in the process.
Game is a principal activity of children and is always present in human life, being one of the most important elements of childhood. Currently, new games and toys appear at a warp speed and their influence on the formation of a child's personality has not been fully studied. The problem of development of personality characteristics of teenagers has always been in the center of attention of scientists and still occupies an important place in psychology. The purpose of the empirical study is to identify the relationship between the games and toys preferred in childhood and the personality of a teenager. The main hypothesis of the study was that there is a relationship between the personality of adolescents and the games and toys that they preferred in childhood. We also put forward a specific hypothesis that the features of toys and games are interconnected with the personality of teenagers. Our study involved 49 15-18 years old adolescents (25 girls and 24 boys). Respondents were interviewed through online and offline testing, using such techniques as "Personal Differential", "Q Methodology", and "Ways to overcome negative situations" as well as the questionnaire developed by the author.
The study found that the features of toy do not play a big role for a teenager’s personality formation while the characteristics of game are decisive.
psychology of toys and games, influence of toys and games, adolescent psychology, personality traits, personality development
The sudden shift in the child's ratio between real and digital worlds due to the pandemic has raised the question of the benefits and harms of gadgets and the conditions of their use at different stages of ontogenesis. Forced to study online and then do homework using a computer, schoolchildren violated all norms regarding healthy lifestyle.
The aim of this study was to describe the reality of children under 11 in the digital world and to create evidence-based recommendations for teachers and parents regarding the norms of gadget use for different ages and the conditions under which this interaction will promote the cognitive development of a child of a particular age.
An online survey of parents and children was conducted to realise this objective. Two questionnaires were developed, one for parents (to describe the gadget situation of pre-school children) and one for school-age children. The data were analysed using spss software. A total of 866 parents and 32 children participated in the survey.
It was shown that 10.2% of children under the age of four had their own gadget. More than half of children (53.7%) were introduced to a gadget before the age of two, and 4.5% of children received a gadget before the age of six months. 64.4% of parents admit that they give their children a gadget to do their own thing or to rest from their children. 37.5% of primary school age children have a social network account, and only 10% of them have an account with their parents, others do it themselves. The main conclusion of the work is that parents are ignorant of the possibilities of today's digital world aimed at creating apps for the cognitive development of the child, and thus accustom the child to the passive absorption of digital information.
Objective. To investigate the correlations among screen time,outdoor activity time,and the physical health of preschoolers,so as to provide suggestions for formulating interventions to prevent myopia and obesity of children.Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in Shenzhen city. A representative sample of 5 226 preschoolers and their caregivers were recruited by a proportional stratified cluster sampling. Data were collected by the Chinese early human capability index( CHe HCI),children's media use in daily family life questionnaire,and body mass index( BMI). Linear regression and binary Logistic regression models were used to analyze the effects of screen time and outdoor activity time on physical health of preschoolers.
Results. Preschoolers spent( 110. 30±90. 67) min/d on screen and( 61. 11±41. 16) min/d on outdoor activity. And 5. 47% of preschoolers were overweight. Screen time negatively predicted preschoolers ' physical health,while outdoor activity time positively predicted preschoolers ' physical health of CHe HCI. There was no significant association between outdoor activity time and overweight of preschoolers.
Conclusion. This study suggests parents might need to reduce preschoolers' screen time and increase outdoor activity time to promote the physical health development of preschoolers.
screen time; outdoor activity time; body mass index; physical health; preschoolers;
Relevance. The increased pace of knowledge acquisition in the learning system determines the need to develop more effective educational practices in comparison with the traditionally established ones.
Purpose: to establish quantitative and qualitative predictors of knowledge in the process of forming the information culture of preschoolers, which can be used as the basis for the activities of specialists in the field of preschool education to prepare educational information offered to preschoolers for mastering, in order to ensure high results of their training.
Methods: 1) theoretical analysis of research results presented in literary sources; 2) textual methods of knowledge extraction; 3) pedagogical experiment; 4) expert evaluation method; 5) mathematical and statistical processing of the results of pedagogical experiment.
Selection. The psychological and pedagogical experiment involved children of senior preschool age (6-7 years old) in the number of 24 people (11 boys, 13 girls) belonging to the main medical group. The experts were preschool teachers in the number of 3 people with at least 20 years of work experience.
The main results. The frequency of information presented to preschoolers contributes to an increase in the amount of knowledge they acquire, and a decrease in the repeatability of predicates in the text significantly reduces not only quantitative, but also qualitative indicators of the assimilation of the proposed educational material. An increase in the qualitative indicators of the knowledge acquired by preschoolers, expressed through the observance by preschoolers of a given sequence of sentences included in the proposed texts. The difference in the reproduction of the predicates perceived by preschoolers contained in the texts was 1.29 points, and the sequences were 1.83 points.
Conclusion. Using the example of two texts in the course of a psychological and pedagogical experiment, the possibility of applying the proposed solutions was demonstrated, which allowed us to conclude that it is advisable to use a universal method of constructing educational information in the process of forming an information culture, in particular, its cognitive component. In an empirical study, the cognitive abilities of children using psychodiagnostic methods were not studied, only the results of a pedagogical experiment were presented. However, this material, in our opinion, should form the basis of the activities of pre-school specialists in preparing educational information offered to preschoolers for mastering, which will ensure high results of their training.
Information culture, digital technologies, educational information, knowledge, volume, quantitative and qualitative predictors, preschool age.
Relevance. The integration of modern technologies in all spheres of life makes the psychologists study the influence of new conditions on the development of child's personality.
The aim of the study was to compare the levels of intelligence and giftedness within the same educational institution in samples with a time difference from 3 to 23 years. The level of intelligence was assessed by the success of mastering the way of activity, solving the problem. Giftedness is defined by us as the ability to create, which is understood as the development of activities on one's own initiative.
Research methods and sampling. The method "Creative field", presented in the method "Animals in the circus" (Bogoyavlenskaya D.B.) allows you to explore the level of intelligence and giftedness. The samples were groups of children aged 6 and 9 years: preschoolers in 1997 - 33 people, 2016 - 61 people, junior schoolchildren: 1999 - 21 people, 2014 – 53 people, 2018 - 28 people, 2022 - 18 people.
The main results. In 1997, preschool children with intellectual problems accounted for 5% with 23% of gifted children. In 2016, we see an increase in "problem" children up to 26% and a decrease in the manifestations of giftedness up to 5%. In 1999, only 1% of primary school-age children could not master the activity. Over the next 13 years, the percentage of intellectual problems increases with a clear decrease in the manifestations of giftedness.
Conclusion. Comparing the indicators of different time epochs, we see a decrease in the manifestations of giftedness and an increase in the group of "problem" children. The influence of virtual technologies due to their maximum expansion and competition with the necessary areas of child development through their replacement or substitution may be the reason for the differences identified.