This study aims to investigate the development of superior psychological functions during childhood, through the analysis of reports given by the subjects involved in this research (children), and also through the observation of moments in which role-play is established in the school routine in institutions of Children’s Education. The overall aim of this research is to analyze children’s reports about play in their routine and how this act takes place in institutions of Children’s Education. The research is based on historical-cultural psychology which encompasses a broad study on the appropriation of superior psychological functions since the natural processes that integrate them in children’s development. These psychological functions are separated, only for study purposes, into elementary psychological functions, directly related to biological development, and superior psychological functions, which only develop due to interaction with one’s culture. Elementary psychological functions are instinctive, related to biological functions such as involuntary attention and instinctive memory; however, superior psychological functions are acquired functions which involve the process of domain of external environments of cultural and thought development such as oral language, language through drawing, written language and calculations. Qualitative research is the methodology used, having as resources individualized interviews, chat groups with the children, photographs taken by the children and active observation. With this study, we intend to broaden the theoretical discussion on the moment when role-play takes place while considering the child’s opinion about the play.