gender socialization, gender stereotypes, hidden curriculum, gender imbalance, gender approach
The analysis of actual problems of gender psychology in education demonstrates the specifics of the gender approach in the realization of equal opportunities for the sustainable development of boys and girls in the conditions of digitalization. The purpose of the study was to compare the gender approach in education with alternative ones: gender-role and gender-neutral approaches. The gender-role approach restricts the development of the child's personality, focusing on the standards of behavior that have developed in a world where male and female roles were polar and complementary. A gender-neutral approach deprives children of the necessary knowledge about gender norms and expectations existing in culture and, accordingly, limits the formation of a child's gender competence. The gender approach creates conditions for girls and boys, men and women to acquire equal rights and opportunities in education and through education. Technical progress and dynamically developing digital economy create a demand for highly qualified specialists with scientific, mathematical, engineering training and computer science knowledge. Due to gender stereotypes, there is a large gender imbalance in the STEM competences area of employment. Therefore, it is important to support girls in picking these specializations and in training the main disciplines during the school period, so that female youngsters could become worthy candidates for vacant high-tech positions. One of the objectives of the study was to develop recommendations for overcoming gender asymmetry in the digital socialization of boys and girls.
For example, to involve girls in gaining STEM skills and knowledge, it is important to use images of successful female scientists, engineers and inventors. It is necessary to teach boys and girls egalitarian models of relationships from the early years, to prepare them to strike a balance between family and work and interchangeability in family roles.